• Pre-Columbian Historical Legacy
  • Jewelry and Goldsmith Sculptural
  • Pre-Columbian Artistic Heritage
  • Pre-Columbian Historical Legacy
  • Jewelry and Goldsmith Sculptural
  • Pre-Columbian Artistic Heritage


  • Royal Gold and Silver Palaces
  •  Acllas, Doncellas of the Inca Empire
  • The Inca and Looting of Gold and Silver Peru
  • The Gold Mines of the Incas 
  • Coricancha. the Main Temple of the Incas



Royals Gold and Silver Palaces

Royals Gold and Silver Palaces

Unforgettable and resplendent

Large palaces, the supreme art of construction, on the sober and imposing exterior unfolded with large courts surrounded by correctly assembled smooth walls and on the majestic and unforgettable interior, resplendent in gold and silver the Inca King, the nobles and their servants. As Inca's power grew, luxury and waste in royal palaces also grew. Each Inca palace was like a museum or jewel of the ancient Incas, where its Panaca guarded it.


Extraordinary Walls

Walls adorned with works of incalculable value, in each corner they found the luxury they enjoyed, upholstered walls and beautiful paintings of feats with gold and silver.


Interior Service

All the interior service of the royal house, the kitchen, dishes, pitchers, glasses, etc. were made with gold and silver, but also using them was a symbol of nobleness, nobility, and peace, such as drinking from the Inca's glass. Jasper doors and colored marble The bathrooms had jars, pipes, gold and silver fences.


The Royal Rooms

The rooms were plated with gold plates, there were also human statues and supernatural characters, sculptures of animals such as birds, deer, tigers, etc., the most beautiful flowers in the kingdom and special objects giving a wonderful and unique appearance to the royal rooms. all in gold and silver.


Musical Instruments

There were various musical instruments to delight the sound of the Inca King and the nobles, among which the wooden and metal drums in gold and set with rhinestones stand out.


Jewelry, silverware, and clothing

Inca jewelry, silverwork, and clothing also shone with gold, silver, and precious stones such as turquoise, emeralds, and others. Some Jewels have great mysteries such as beautiful and large necklaces, bracelets, ear muffs, rings. The goldsmiths wore patenas on their heads, patenillas on their beards, garlands on headdresses, masks and the precious mascapaicha that is the symbol of the power of the Inca and the one worn by Pachacútec, instead of the tassel of Incarnated wool of its ancestors, I use a mascapaicha curd of gold and emeralds. The Inca and the nobles wore gold-embroidered shirts for the newspaper and made for ceremonial use with larger gold plates, they did not repeat their costumes. Besides, they added ornaments on the chest, headbands, and gold flip flops. The bedding and blankets were vicuñas.


Seat and Go

The seat of the Inca or Tiana was made of solid 16-carat gold and the walk was carried by 25 men, it was also made of gold and large stones and emeralds.


The gifts of the Incas

The gifts of the Incas were solemn and verbose.


Death and a New Palace

When he died, each Inca left his royal palace intact, with its interior service, rooms, instruments, jewelry, silverware, and gifts that his successor could not touch. The new Inca had to build his new palace and send artists, jewelers, and goldsmiths from all over the kingdom to manufacture everything new. A gold mask covered the deceased for the extension of his life. The body was embalmed with gold, and it looked as if it was alive, the eyes were made of a gold leaf that looked natural.



Acllas, Doncellas of the Inca Empire


The Acllas

They were the maids, a charm of beauty, more exceptional cultural preparation, craftsmanship, and labor services of the empire, they played a unique and crucial role in the Tahuantinsuyo, with influence and meaning that went far, creating political alliances. All peoples had an obligation to pay acllas to the state and carried out a reciprocity system that kept the empire functioning.
Destining an aclla was a successful way of gaining the loyalty and trust of those peoples conquered by the Incas.
The workforce of an aclla was delivered in the form of textiles or others, using gifts that helped confer status.



The selection criteria were based on her beauty as a maiden, abilities, intelligence, physical perfection, social rank, moral qualities, ability to sing, place of origin. The most skillful and physically perfect were sent to the Acllahuasi of Cuzco, the capital of the empire.
They were hidden, they rarely left the Acllahuasi, but if they did go they had to go places where they offered celebrations, they were guarded by their servants and guards, nobody could attack them verbally or physically.
Several stayed in perpetuity as teachers in the Acllahuasi and when their lives ended they were buried in the compound.



Every year in March or November, girls or adolescents were collected and summoned from various parts of the Empire to serve the Inca or the Sun God,
as gifts to the nobility, girls approximately from the age of eight, there is no certainty of the exact age and undoubted virginity.
Many of these girls were recruited by the state and came from different social backgrounds, some were daughters of the nobility of the highest rank, curacas of Cuzco and provinces, curacas of defeated towns as prisoners, dried apricots, the people, among others.
These girls were separated from their family nucleus, sent to remote places of their origin, where they had to learn a new language and different customs.



Exclusively female educational centers, established around the entire central and provincial empire, to serve the Inca or the Sun God. They were permanently inhabited between 500 and 1000 acllas. Temples where the acllas were prepared strictly under the supervision of the Mamaconas, who were master priestesses who instructed them.

Only the Coya, the Ñustas, and the Inca king could enter this temple. The main Acllahuasi were:
Acllahuasi de Cuzco: It was the first house where the acllas resided and served as a model for them to do in other vital places in Tawantinsuyo.Acllahuasi de Cuzco: It was the first house where the acllas resided and served as a model for them to do in other important places in Tawantinsuyo.
Acllahuasi de Pachacamac: Where was the Temple of the Moon.
Acllahuasi in Machu Picchu: It was the largest where the stone mortar room was located.



The Acllahuasi of Cuzco and the main centers were built with high walls and without windows that opened to the outside, giving the appearance of a convent. As it moved geographically away from Cuzco, the buildings became more modest and less populated with acllas.
The buildings were part of a security system with close surveillance, where the first entrance door was secure and guarded by twenty doormen, but they could not pass through the second most robust door yet because they were given the death penalty. A temple surrounded by walls and thin walls plated with gold, paved patios, clean cobbled streets, and food tanks.



The education of all the acllas tended to be very similar; they received a selective and careful preparation in the Acllahuasi, where they were taught religious, productive and work activities such as dancing, singing, weaving, spinning; cook, make cloaks and dresses for the Inca and the Coya, prepare food and drinks such as preparing the sacred chicha for ritual consumption, beautiful crafts, other skills with art and mastery for the consumption and service of the gods and nobles.


Types of Acllas

There were different types of acllas intended exclusively:

Daughters of the leading high nobility, the most beautiful, of the most important Inca lineage, the descendant of the gods the "Virgins of the Sun" dedicated to being wives of the Sun and to perform solar cults, cults to the cosmos and sacrifice.
It was an honor service, of the highest rank, a very privileged position, and he respected that all viewed with reverence for having the superior distinction of the Sun, of being his eternal wife to whom the Inca owed his life.
They were found in various temples throughout the empire.
They made a vow of chastity to dedicate themselves to being the wife of the Sun God.
They dedicated their entire lives to maintain the worship and worship of the Sun.
They made very old mysteries and mysterious solar cults
They performed religious ceremonies, they were the Inca priestesses.
They kept the sacred fire burning
They prepared the bread and sacred chicha
They performed various rituals that only they could do

Sacred rituals to the cosmos:
Rituals in the mortar room or astronomical observation mirrors: It was a stone block room that included circular carved stone mortars on the ground, with water brought from sacred lakes and rivers, supposedly for grinding grain, but it was for liturgical use to make observations on it of the reflection of the stars: sun, moon, and stars.

Rituals in honor of the moon: The virgins of the sun knew that the moon had an energetic influence on women according to periods and lunar phenomena and observed their reflection in stone mortars. They also invoked her so that she never abandons them and that she always helps them strengthen their chastity (virginity), accompanying the ritual with fasting, prayer, and songs.

Rituals in honor of the stars: In the nights with the use of the emerald stone, they captured the power of the stars and therefore had the gift of clairvoyance.

Rituals with the presence of the Inca king, priests and virgins of the sun who wore precious jewels and also gave the sacred chicha to drink to all the noble participants, accompanying the ritual with songs, dances, and musicians with gold ornaments and precious stones.

Rituals of the annual renewal of obedience of the virgins of the sun, where many people attended only to see the beautiful spectacle that they were.

Rituals when they went to visit temples and sanctuaries of cleanliness and decoration, always accompanied by their entourage of guards, apart from them they carried a spear in their hands and a bow with arrows.


The Sacrificed

Few were destined to be sacrificed, on top of a mountain anywhere in Tawantinsuyo, offering them in exchange for winning the favor of the gods or when
A new Inca governor entered. A ritual sacrifice tied to the gifts and the precious reciprocity system.
Those who were not slaughtered in Cuzco could be returned to their towns and slaughtered there; this would create a connection between Cuzco and the outlying regions they had conquered. The story of Tanta Carhua is one of the stories of the union of the center and the periphery, who, after visiting Cuzco and being honored by the Inca emperor, asked him if he could sacrifice her in exchange for his father becoming a curaca and his descendants being a link between them and Cuzco. Thus achieving that, they sacrificed her, ritually sanctify her and that her father became curaca of her ayllu.
The acllas had to remain virgins until they were sacrificed; most of them continued working until exhaustion.

A large presence of the "Virgins of the Sun" is also observed in the Huánuco Pampa ritual site.
It is said that the Incas dedicated love songs to the virgins of the sun and they could only hear them excited through the walls.

2) Daughters of the high nobility dedicated to being wives of the Inca:
They were high-ranking acllas daughters of the central and provincial high nobility, royal blood and kinship that the Inca King chose, a cautious and controlled category where the acllas could become the secondary wives or concubines of the Inca emperor or be assigned as a prize to be wives of someone of the nobility, privilege, merit, curacas or great warriors or someone who wanted to please the Inca.
Those who became wives or concubines of the Inca were separated in gathering houses. Their position was privileged since they received all the generosity, an excellent social condition of their family, significant power, and supremacy within the empire that the Inca.
The position of a former wife of a leader who was elected by the Inca also made her benefit socially, giving her their land to lead.

3) Daughters of minor regional caciques, dedicated to being wives of provincial nobles.

4) Daughters of the servitude of the Acllahuasi, who was not so beautiful or so noble, when they reached the age of marriage, they could be wives of the bride and groom chosen by their parents, with the authorization of the Inca or dedicate themselves when finishing their service in the Acllahuasi.

5) Outstanding daughters, in general, chosen for their artistic skills dedicated to brightening the festivities of the imperial court and to acllas through singing, dancing, and music when required.

6) Generally outstanding daughters dedicated to being guardians of the main huacas, blessed by the Inca Emperor.



It was of utmost importance and to those who did not keep their chastity, the death penalty was applied, including their relatives and livestock, leaving it to die due to weakness and abandonment and it was not the hand of the human being that ended it.
They also received a sentence if an aclla was caught with a man, if a man tried to make her fall in love and if a man climbed the house of one of them.

If the pregnancy of an aclla were to occur and there was no evidence against it of the strict rule of required virginity, the pregnancy was considered to have been carried out by the will of the Sun god and automatically, the son who was born was considered privileged, son of the Sun God and as such received favorable treatment for his entire life.
If an aclla lost their virginity with the Inca, they could not return to their Acllahuasi, and they stayed to serve in the royal house.


Acllas Mummies Found

Acllas mummies were found in the tombs and next to them decorated jugs, ceremonial pots, pins, tupus, needles, necklaces, objects, and bracelets that served as mirrors that they used in their work to the community.

Aclla virtuous and beautiful women to the full service of the Empire to the Inca.





The Inca and Looting of Gold and Silver Peru


In Peru, the story surpasses the legend in amazement. Gold, from the earliest times, had a mythical and divine value in homage to the Sun and became priestly, the sacred cosmos and privilege of the Inca. The Peruvian gold parade allowed the King of Spain to be superior to all the kings and princes of Europe thanks to the abundance of the riches of the kingdom of Peru and Pre-Columbian America. The gold of triumph that purifies saves, and accelerates the moment of catastrophe, becoming a prisoner of fate.


Huascar and Atahualpa

The Inca conqueror of various towns was always enriching the palaces of Cuzco and the temple of Coricancha. Cuzco had supported Huáscar who had been at war with Atahualpa for the empire. Atahualpa was in Cajamarca, on the way to Cuzco to be crowned Inca when he received a visit from a Spanish invasion under the command of Francisco Pizarro who captured him through deception.


Capture of Atahualpa

From the capture of the Inca, jeweled at the top of his walk loaded by his servers and accompanied by his 7,000-person entourage that included dancers, nobles, and guards, the amazing river of gold that carries the name of Peru to the ends of the European world begins.
The friar went to Atahualpa with a bible and started a ceremony asking the Inca to accept Christianity as a religion and submit to the King of Spain's authority and the pope. Atahualpa asked the friar for the bible, examined it, and threw it on the ground, showing contempt and saying that the Spaniards should pay everything they had stolen from their empire. Pizarro then gave the signal to attack surprising the nobles, captains and the Inca, they killed as many as they could, and those who survived fled. Meanwhile, the Inca loaded by his servants fell and was captured and imprisoned. Pizarro disrupted the victorious Inca army that had conquered all of South America. Three centuries later, the Spanish Empire would be disrupted in the Junín countryside.


Atahualpa Prison

The Inca reached his most disastrous moment when Pizarro took the Inca king Atahualpa as a prisoner an intelligent, cunning and subtle man, who understood that gold was the price and amulet of his life and that it had great value for the Spanish for which he made a spectacular and enormous offer to Pizarro that amazed history and its century in exchange for his freedom: Fill the room known as the Rescue Room with different pieces of gold, between pitchers, pots, tiles, among others, as far as his raised hand and twice the same room, with silver objects within a promised period of two months. Thus, Atahualpa sent the order to the entire empire to send the largest amount of gold and silver to Cajamarca. The days continued and the shipments arrived from Pachacámac and Cuzco where the Coricancha was.
Before the rescue room was full, the Spanish began to melt the pieces of gold and silver. After the smelting, Pizarro ordered the distribution of looting for each of the Spaniards in Cajamarca, from the captains to the foot soldiers, they received a fortune, but Pizarro's ambition was not satisfied as he wanted an entire empire. Despite being a prisoner, Atahualpa was easy-going, cheerful, and talkative with the Spanish, his captors allowed him to have comforted and be cared for by his servants and women, allowing him to continue administering his empire. Atahualpa had dinner every night with Francisco Pizarro and spoke with him through an interpreter. Demonstrating superior intelligence, they were admired for his keen speech, he also learned a little Spanish and played chess.


Death of Inca Huascar

Pizarro learned that Atahualpa's followers were holding Huáscar prisoner near Cuzco. Atahualpa ordered that they take him to Huáscar, but he was killed during the journey by his custodians, it is believed that Atahualpa ordered his death because he feared that he would get along with the Spanish, but he always denied having been responsible for the crime and blamed it on their captains. It is then that the condemnation of the Inca and the distribution of the gold whose legitimate owner was the Inca Huáscar arrived together.


Death of Inca Atahualpa

The situation of the Spanish was distressing, as they feared an indigenous attack. At that time Pizarro's partner, Diego de Almagro, came to Cajamarca when he discovered that he would not receive anything from the ransom, he pressed to kill the Inca, most of the Spaniards agreed, but two captains, Hernando Pizarro and Hernando de Soto defended the Atahualpa's life. Pizarro moved both away to get rid of Atahualpa without obstacles, after the departure of both captains The gold incentive divided Almagro's soldiers, who helped him, guard. So it was necessary to hasten the distribution of the gold so that it was for everyone. There was no surer solution than to plan the Inca's death to prevent the explosion of greed.
Pizarro organized a farce of trial against the Inca emperor, where he accused him of heresy, polygamy, idolatry, and conspiracy against the Spanish crown and of assassinating Huáscar. They decided then to betray Atahualpa towards the king of Spain, who was put on trial and sentenced to be burned at stake, Atahualpa, informed, asked to speak privately with Pizarro, but he refused, he was taken to the center of the Plaza de Cajamarca, was alarmed to see that he was going to be burned because according to the Inca religion, the body had to be embalmed to achieve his resurrection in the other world, which would not be possible if the flames consumed him, so they offered him the alternative of being baptized as a Christian and being executed by strangulation, that way his body could be buried, an alternative that Atahualpa accepted.
Quote the chronicler Pedro Pizarro who saw Francisco Pizarro cry over Atahualpa's death. The following day, Atahualpa's body was brought with a grand ceremony to the church to pray the deceased's offices and give him a Christian burial. The corpse was deposited in front of the main altar, and the Spanish religious sang, all prayed before the dead. During the ceremony a group of women formed by sisters, wives, and servants of Atahualpa, entered the church and offered to bury the Inca dead alive since that was the custom at the funeral of an Inca king, the Spanish replied that Atahualpa had died as a Christian and that this custom was contrary to the doctrines of Christianity, but the women did not conform and finally hanged themselves with their hair.
Atahualpa was buried in the Cajamarca church, but a few days later, his body disappeared. Probably his subjects took the body to mummify and bury it. According to popular belief, keeping his mummy maintains the hope of return. Among some indigenous peoples, it is believed that Atahualpa will return one day to rule them with justice and give them well-being, this belief is known as the myth of the Inkarri or the Inca king Atahualpa. According to this myth, the Inca was dismembered and his head buried in Cuzco, but his hair continues to grow in the direction of the other members and one day the body will be integrated again, and Atahualpa will return to restore the order of the Andean world broken by the Spanish invasion.


Pizarro was Received as a Liberator in Cuzco

From Cuzco to Cajamarca there were at least forty days there and back to carry the treasures. The treasures of Cajamarca were many, but the stories tell us that in Cuzco there were more treasures than in Cajamarca. Pizarro and his invaders were received in the city of Cusco as liberators, taking advantage and plundering all the gold and silver of the city without mercy.


The Loot and Gold Parade in Spain

Peru transformed the European economy into an uncontrollable boom in money and capitalism, riches that exceed all looting in history, more than that of Genoa, Milan, Rome, the prison of King Francisco, or the dispossession of Montezuma. Every day from Peru, they were driven by slow roads, loaded with thirty, forty, fifty, sixty-two hundred and sixty loads of gold and silver. Genovese or Venetian merchants witnessed the unloading of the treasure of the Incas in Seville's city, impressed by a fantastic parade of looting, which spread it throughout Europe with figures of envy.
Unfortunately, many of the treasures were melted down and irretrievably brought to Europe. The most unusual objects that were brought to Europe were:
Gold: Beautiful pieces, of houses, temples, palaces, stripping of walls, works of art, sculptures, gold boxes, thin and thick plates, 600 plates of palaces, 500 plates of the temple of Cuzco, treasures of Pachacamac, sentries, figures of small and large women, half-length figures of an Indian, significant in size, a four-year-old boy, and a dwarf man with a crown with three rams, massive jugs, vases, vases, pots of two and three arrobas, jars, a pot with a broken cow, carved fountains, a large fountain with pipes running water, a fountain with various birds and men, llamas with their life-size shepherds, an eagle or condor, ram, lamb, two drums, two sacks and in each fanega of wheat, corn canes with leaves or ears of gold, among others.
Silver: Monstrous pieces of women, llamas, sheep, ceremonial garments with gold plates, a white gold plate that is presumed to have been the image of the moon plucked from the Temple of the Sun, a jar with two handles, small and large plates, pitchers, pots, braceros, large snowflakes, llamas, a dog's head, various pieces combined with gold and emeralds. The Spaniards did not glimpse the enormous wealth buried in the tombs, if all the treasure of huacas, temples, buried tombs were brought together, what was taken out by the Spaniards would be as little as a drop in a large container of water.


The Cast of Looting

According to the official act of treasures of gold and silver, collected and artistic, the distribution was divided between: The King the fifth, the company of soldiers, Hernando Pizarro, Hernando de Soto, Juan Pizarro, Pedro de Candia, immediate captains, horsemen, the infantry, Pizarro, and Almagro for goods of the universal company and Pizarro touched him carved pieces of Indians and certain women of gold, but the seat or throne of the Inca was not counted, in solid gold with emeralds and precious stones. Even the quota granted to the last Spanish pawn was a great fortune, the amount of gold distributed may be greater than the official record of the distribution since not all the gold was registered and much was evaded from the account.



The Gold Mines of the Incas

Peru Mining Country

Historically, Peru is a mining country. A country of rich mountains, beautiful lands, smiling beaches, fertile lands, snowy peaks, broken rivers, is Peru. All cold lands, high mountain ranges, bare, treeless, red, brown, or whitish hills are paved with silver and gold. The Peruvian highlands are the most abundant in mines and at the same time the most populated and sterile. It can be considered that the entire extension of the Andes mountain range, to a greater or lesser degree, is an inexhaustible laboratory of gold and silver. From the moment the Spaniards invaded, committing the largest looting and genocide in history, which reduced from 15 million inhabitants to one and a half million where mining activity served to strengthen the Spanish crown, mercantile capitalist.


Pre-Inca mines

Long before the Inca period, different pre-Inca cultures knew how to extract metals and minerals, turning them into household items, weapons, or others. In the explorations carried out by the archeologist Cardich in Lauricocha, between Cerro de Paseo and Huánuco, corpses of children were found with an antiquity of 8000 years old. C. Wrapped with ocher-colored earth, turquoise cube-shaped necklace beads, and a large quantity of iron that demonstrate full knowledge of pre-Inca mining and metallurgy techniques.


Inca Mining

The mining industry was a complementary activity after agriculture. The Inca state was the owner of the means of production and mining deposits, which was established through wars of conquered and subdued peoples, who were forced to work in agriculture, coca cultivation, military service, construction of public works, and in addition to mining deposits. The Incas had discovered the mines of Peru where metals and minerals such as gold, silver, copper, lead, iron, pyrite, among others were worked. Being the main employees in the manufacture of ornamental objects, weapons, and some smaller-scale tools. The Incas had the main God, the Sun, and his descendant on earth was the Inca, who deserved all the adoration of the Inca people and who demonstrated it by delivering all the gold and silver extracted from the mine's religious objects of gold and silver. Thus, precious metal mining was oriented towards ceremonial, religious, political, military, industrial use, and the strengthening of the Inca imperial state. There was no other place where there are more gold and silver than in Peru. Ornamental objects were made of gold and silver, in the royal houses, the Incas embellished it and recreated with finest finishes, thus reviving them plants and animals of nature. Gardens and orchards with trees, plants, and beautiful flowers that were beginning to sprout, others half-grown, of all sizes, such as cornfields with their leaves, ears, roots, and flower. Animals in a wild atmosphere like birds, rabbits, lions, lizards, snakes, butterflies, foxes, cats, etc. Copper also had an instrumental and technical role, for the manufacture of agricultural tools.


Inca Gold and Silver Grade

The gold was jealously requisitioned by the state belonging to the Inca and the Sun. Tupac Yupanqui ordered to apprehend the merchants who brought gold, silver, precious stones or other exquisite things, to investigate where they had found and thus discover the gold and silver mines, a time where the law is dictated that no gold and silver that enters Cuzco, can leave otherwise the death penalty will be applied.


Inca Technology

The technology used by the Incas in the exploitation of the mines was open pit and pits, developed through the use of different techniques of its time, such as open-pit metal extraction, pits systems, and tools based on wood, stones, and metals. Metals with which alloys were made, forged, rolled, embossed, chiseling, engraving, casting, pressure, welding, rivet, gold, and embedded. In the drilling of tunnels, the exploitation and surface procedures were rudimentary; they were not deepened beyond natural light. For the extraction, they used vertical galleries, tunnels, and open pit.
Ancient technical descriptions that related caves were found near rivers at half the height, where they drilled by digging the ground with deer horns, bones, stakes, and stones, where they took out bags of sheep hides also extracted gold with shakers and rafts. Copper was used in some articles mainly in the manufacture of weapons and tools, a small percentage of tin was added, and the alloy constituted the so-called Peruvian bronze.
The excavation mines corresponded mainly to the mines in the Collao region. The mine aided on a large scale the recruitment of men for the extraction of minerals and the logic for the management of the mines was used to establish periods of mineral extraction, work shifts and to propose expected achievements. Metallurgy also reached surprising degrees of technology development, as in the case of fusion and metal rolling methods.
Later, the people of Nazca, especially Chimú, excelled in metallurgy, reaching an exceptional technology for working in gold in soldering, plating, gilding, electron, stamping, pearling, filigree and alloys, resources that they achieved perfectly. In the process of expansion of the Tahuantinsuyo and the conquest of the town of Chimú by the Incas, they assimilated their technology, where they captured the experience of technology not only of Chimú, but also of Nazca, Chavín, Tiahuanaco, and Wari that were cultured before that of the Incas.


The Cajamarca Assault

The Inca Atahualpa was captured when he was carrying out administrative and political acts in the city of Cajamarca, he immediately ordered his subjects to concentrate all the precious metals that were held in exchange for their freedom. Many treasures such as sculptures, fountains, vases, pots, plates, and gold plates on the walls were melted from the large quantity of silver and gold found, reducing to fine gold, and another group of treasures was brought to Spain: jars, jars, sculptures among others. Pizarro took the singular treasure from the seat of the Inca King as if predicting that the King of Spain would sit on it. A harsh reality that Peru lived with the death of the Inca Atahualpa, and then went on to a history full of shadows that lasted more than three centuries of Spanish rule, and then went on to the republic.


Hidden Mining Deposits

The Incas, seeing the Spaniards' excessive ambition for gold and silver, chose to hide the metal mining deposits and most of their wealth and treasures, because they felt that nobody had to use what was due to the Inca King. This is where the stories of hidden treasures come from.


Spanish colonization

The looting of the Incas in Cajamarca and Cuzco, exterminated the Inca natives mainly the mining myth, agriculture, flourishing cultures, and it was discovered that the mines of Peru had given more wealth to Spain than the riches of looting. The Spanish crown adopts control of its new conquered colony, establishing the viceregal government system, where the king of Spain controls the Peruvian colony through the viceroys, imposing the political, economic, military, religious, legal, social and cultural order, a beginning difficult and complex of a new economy foreign to the development of the Tahuantinsuyo. The colonial-era cracked and destroyed the Inca production system.
Spanish control of mining deposits that focused on the exploitation of gold and silver, which developed ruthlessly, with slave characteristics mainly in the mining seats of Huancavelica and Potosí. Every year it was taken out of Peru to send Spain, millions of silver and gold. The treasure obtained by the Spanish was little compared to the products of the following mines.




Coricancha, the Main Temple of the Incas

The Incas founded temples of the sun throughout the Empire, the most important being the Pre-Columbian Coricancha temple in the city of Cuzco. It was one of the most revered and respected temples in the city of Cusco, in Peru. The most sacred golden precinct of the Incas, where worship was given to the sun god, the golden kingdom that dazzled the Spanish. They could only fast, barefoot, and with a load on their backs as a sign of humility. A place that seems like a story of a thousand and one nights, with a crowded with gold that inside it contains magnificent riches and works of art.



The construction was a mixture of gold and molten lead. Designed with techniques to resist any earthquake, preventing its fall with an elegant bed of sand, on which thick and solid stone blocks with millimeter precision are laid, transported, modeled, and boxed as if it had been upholstery, united with melted gold. The fences and walls were surprising because they were covered from top to bottom with sheets, plates, and gold planks. The façade was a beautiful wall of fine stonework, decorated in pure gold of a palm high, three meters above the ground, and a roof of beautiful and delicately cut straw. In one of the second-course blocks, three holes are observed that could be used to evacuate the rainwater from the inner courtyard, or as an outlet for the chicha that was offered as an offering to the Sun God. According to the experiments, if it is hit inside from the holes, you can hear the musical notes (re, la, mi). The wall crowned a system of platforms that went down to the river.


The Main Altar and Solar Disk

The solar disk (A sacred object and instrument of supernatural power, which could open dimensional portals, gigantic solid gold like a gold crystal, representing the "Sun". An exquisite piece made with its round face with rays.



It was the garden of the Sun, it had walls, statues of people, animals, plants and Inca mummies.


Human Sculptures

Sculptures covered in gold chapería, that covered images of the golden feminine and masculine divinities.


Animal Sculptures

They were gold sculptures offered to the divinities; this custom eliminated human sacrifices or reduced it to a minimum. All kinds of animals in their natural positions such as llamas and their shepherds, rabbits, deer, lions, tigers, lizards, butterflies on the branches and large and small snakes that seemed to walk up and down them, some birds that flew, others that they sang, they were on trees, or they were sucking the honey from the flowers and snails and lizards that crawled on the ground.


Plant Sculptures

The most beautiful trees, plants, flowers, and fruits in the kingdom, imitated and perfected in their real size in gold and silver. The sacred root of quinoa and the cornfields with their leaves, ears, reeds, ears of wheat, roots, and flower all of the silver and the hair that the cob of gold casts, soldered one with another that seemed natural.


Sculpture of Objects

Small and large ornamental art objects, vases, queros or sacred vessels, large gold and silver jugs for the chicha solar. The offerings arrived from all over Tahuantinsuyo for the Inca and God the Sun.


Jewelry and Goldsmithing

An essential religious and ritual of Jewelry: necklaces, bracelets, ear muffs, rings, patenas in the heads, patellas in the beard, garlands on headdresses, masks, medals, scepters, and ornaments.



In this space of terraces were deposited.



Royal mummies of the twelve Inca kings, children of the sun placed by antiquity, in a row, in chairs on tables from Manco Capac, all in solid gold, with jewels and faces embellished with gold sheets, who stood guard with their ancestors in the Chapel of the Sun A splendid golden delight, a sacred place of the Incas, where worship of the sun god was rendered with magnificent riches and works of art.